Russian Hackers Actively Attacking Small-scale Infrastructure Sectors

Russian hacktivists increasingly target small-scale operational technology (OT) systems across North America and Europe.

These attacks, primarily focused on the Water and Wastewater Systems (WWS), Dams, Energy, and Food and Agriculture sectors, pose significant threats to critical infrastructure.

The Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) and other national and international cybersecurity bodies have issued a detailed advisory to help organizations defend against these malicious activities.


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According to the latest report from CISA, these pro-Russia hacktivists are exploiting vulnerabilities in industrial control systems (ICS) that are accessible via the internet.

The primary method of attack involves exploiting default passwords and outdated Virtual Network Computing (VNC) software to gain unauthorized access to human-machine interfaces (HMIs).

Once inside the system, these actors manipulate controls to disrupt operations.

The sectors most affected include small-scale OT systems in North American and European Water and Wastewater Systems, Dams, Energy, and Food and Agriculture.

These sectors are critical to public safety and health, making the attacks a nuisance and a potential threat to human life.

Impact of the Cyberattacks

While the impact of these cyberattacks is often described as limited by the hacktivists themselves, it can lead to significant disruptions.

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For instance, in early 2024, several U.S.-based WWS facilities reported unauthorized manipulations of HMIs.

These manipulations caused water pumps and blower equipment to operate beyond normal parameters, leading to minor tank overflow events.

Although most facilities could revert to manual controls and restore normal operations quickly, the potential for severe damage and risk to public safety was evident.

In response to these ongoing threats, CISA and its partner organizations have outlined several mitigation strategies to enhance the security of OT systems.

Key recommendations include:

  • Securing Remote Access: Organizations are urged to disconnect all HMIs from the public-facing internet.
  • If remote access is necessary, it should be secured with strong passwords and multifactor authentication through a firewall or virtual private network (VPN).
  • Strengthening Password Policies: Immediate changes from default and weak passwords to strong, unique passwords are advised.
  • Multifactor authentication should be implemented for all access points to the OT network.
  • Regular Updates and Monitoring: It is crucial to keep all systems and software up to date with the latest security patches.
  • Additionally, remote access attempt logging and monitoring should be enhanced to detect and respond swiftly to unauthorized access attempts.

The advisory also emphasizes the role of OT device manufacturers in ensuring that their products are secure by design, urging them to eliminate default passwords and require multifactor authentication for any changes to system configurations.

As these cyber threats evolve, the collaboration between governmental agencies and private sector organizations will be vital in safeguarding critical infrastructure from potential cyberattacks.

Entities requiring additional support must contact their regional CISA Cybersecurity Advisor or relevant national cybersecurity bodies.

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Author: Divya